A Natural Wonder
The Zambezi River
The Victoria Falls
Ecology of the Victoria Falls
Formation of the Victoria Falls
People of the Victoria Falls
Enter the Ndebele
Discovery of the Victoria Falls
In Livingstone's Footsteps
Development of the Rhodesias
Development of the Railway
Development of Tourism
Development of Victoria Falls Town
Recent History
Further Information
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Further information



Abel, S. and Mudzonga, E. (2016) The Performance of the Tourism Sector in Zimbabwe during the 2000-08 Economic Crisis. [In Kararach, G. and Otieno, R. [Editors] (2016)]

Agate W (1912) Diary of a tour in South Africa. Holness, London. Free download.

Arderne, (1904) The Arderne Party Chronicles. Cape Town. Free download.

Arnot, F S (1883) From Natal to the Upper Zambezi: First Year Among the Barotse. Mission, Glasgow.

Arnot F S (1889) Garenganze: or, Seven Years Pioneer Mission Work in Central Africa. Hawkins, London. Free download.

Arnot F S (1914) Missionary Travels in Central Africa. Holness, London. Free download.

Arrington, A. L. (2009) Competitive Labour: Divisions between Zambian and Zimbabwean Workers. African Studies, Vol.68 No.1. Available online.

Arrington, A. L. (2010) Competing for tourists at Victoria Falls: A historical consideration of the effects of government involvement. Development Southern Africa. Vol.27 No.5, December 2010. Available online.

Arrington-Sirois, A. L. (2017) Victoria Falls and Colonial Imagination in British Southern Africa: Turning Water into Gold. Palgrave Macmillan. Available online.

Attenborough, D. (1965) Zambezi: A Journey. Episode 3: Livingstone’s River. British Broadcasting Corporation television film documentary.


Baden Powell R S S (1897) Matabele campaign, 1896; being a narrative of the campaign in supressing the native rising in Matabeleland and Mashonaland. Holness, London. Free download.

Baker E (1921) The Life & Explorations of Frederick Stanley Arnot. Seeley, Servive & Co. Free download.

Baines, Thomas (1862), The Victoria Falls, Zambezi River, sketched on the spot by Thomas Baines, FRGS, 1862 (reprint Bulawayo, Rhodesia: Books of Rhodesia, 1969).

Baines, Thomas (1864), Explorations in South-West Africa: Being an account of a journey in the years 1861 and 1862 from Walvisch Bay, on the Western Coast to Lake Ngami and the Victoria Falls. Longmans, Roberts and Green, London. Free download.

Baldwin W C (1863) African Hunting and Adventure from Natal to the Zambesi. Bentley, London.

Balfour, H. (1905) Diaries of Henry Balfour (1863-1939) South Africa 1905.

Balfour, H. (1929) Diaries of Henry Balfour (1863-1939) South and East Africa 1929.

Baxter, P (2010) Rhodesia, Last Outpost of the British Empire (1890-1980), Galago

Beet. G. (1923) The Story of the Ox Wagon - The Story of a Famous Engineering Feat. [In Weinthal, L. (1923)]

Bertrand, A (1899) The Kingdom of the Barotse. T. Fisher Unwin, London. Free download

Bethell, A J (1887) Notes on South African Hunting and Notes on a Ride to Victoria Falls of the Zambesi. Sampson, York.

Blake, W. T. (1960) Rhodesia and Nyasaland Journey. Redman, London.

Boon M (2007) Zambezi - The First Solo Journey down Africa’s Mighty River. Struik

Bond G (1975) The Geology and Formation of the Victoria Falls. In: Phillipson D W [Ed] (1975).

Bowler M (1993) Conservation of the Victoria Falls and proposed World Heritage Site. National Parks Report, Harare.

Brelsford W V (1965) Genereation of Men: The European Pioneers of Northern Rhodesia. Stuart Manning, Salisbury, Rhodesia, p 103.

Brendon, P (2008) The Decline and Fall of the British Empire 1781-1997, Vintage, London

British South Africa Company (1905?) Guide to the Victoria Falls. London.

British South Africa Company (1907). Rhodesia, A Book for Tourists and Sportsmen. BSAC. Free download

Bulpin, Thomas Victor (1965), To the banks of the Zambezi. Johannesburg, Nelson.

Burrett, R. and Mateke, C. (2018) Shongwe: The Rich Heritage of Livingstone and Victoria Falls. Khami Press, Bulawayo.

Burrett, R. and Murray, G. (2013) ‘Iron Spine and Ribs’ A brief history of the foundations of the railways of Zimbabwe and Zambia. Khami Press, Bulawayo.


Cameron, C. (1913) A Woman’s Winter in Africa. Stanley Paul & Co, London. Free download

Carruthers , J (1995), The Life and Work of Thomas Baines. London: Longman, Green.

Chapman, James (1868), Travels in the Interior of South Africa, 2 vols., London [Reprint 1971 A A Balkema, Cape Town] Free download Part 1, Part 2.

Clark J D (1950) The origin and spelling of the name Zambezi. Northern Rhodesia Journal, No 6, pp69-71.

Clark, J D [Editor] (1952) The Victoria Falls : A Handbook to the Victoria Falls, the Batoka Gorge, and part of the Upper Zambesi River Commission for the Preservation of Natural and Historical Monuments and Relics, Lusaka, Northern Rhodesia.

Clark J D (1952) The Native Tribes in Clark J D [Ed] (1952).

Clark, J D (1975) Stone Age Man at the Victoria Falls. In: Phillipson D W [Ed] (1975).

Clark, P. M. (1906?) Souvenir of the Victoria Falls

Clark, P. M & Heath, A (c1910) Victoria Falls : An Album London, P G Hunt

Clark, P. M (1925) Guide to the Victoria Falls (Fifth Edition)

Clark, P. M. (1936) Autobiography of an Old Drifter. Harrap, London.

Clay C G R (1959) The Discovery of the Victoria Falls Northern Rhodesian Journal 4:18-21

Clay C G R (1968) Your Friend Lewanika - the life and times of Lubosi Lewanika, Litunga of Barotseland 1842 to 1916 National Museum of Zambia

Colliard F (1897) On the threshold of Africa - A Record of Twenty Years Pioneering among the Barotse of the Upper Zambezi. Hodder and Stoughton, London. Free download

Cooke C K (1975) The Zeederburg Coach, Rhodesianna, No 32, March pp 43-7.

Coupland, R (1928), Kirk on the Zambezi A Chapter of African History, Oxford

Cowen, W. W. (1995) A Central African Odyssey. Radcliffe Press.

Creewel, J. (2004) A history of the Victoria Falls Hotel - 100 years 1904-2004. [Edited and updated by Stan Higgins. Originally published in 1994 as ‘A history of the Victoria Falls Hotel - 90 Glorious Years 1904-1994.’]

Critchel, R (2007) A fireman in Africa. From 'The Great North Road' Available Online.

Croxton, A. (1982) Railways of Zimbabwe [Originally published in 1973 as Railways of Rhodesia]

Curzon, Lord (1909) The Victoria Falls. From 'The Times,' 14 April 1909


Daniels S G H and Phillipson D W (1969) The Early Iron Age Site at Damba near Livingstone In Fagan B M and Phillipson D W and Daniels S G H, Iron Age Cultures in Zambia, ii, London, pp 3-54

Decle L (1898) Three Years in Savage Africa London. Free download

DuToit R F (1982) A Preliminary Assessment of the Environmental Implications of the proposed Mupata and Batoka Hydro-electric Schemes Natural Resources Board Report, Harare, Zimbabwe.


Economic Survey of Livingstone (1957) Rhodesia and Nyasaland Prime Minister’s Department.

Ese K (1996) A Historical Guide to Livingstone Town Directory Publishers, Bulawayo.


Fagan, B M [Editor] (1964) The Victoria Falls : A Handbook to the Victoria Falls, the Batoka Gorge, and part of the Upper Zambesi River (Second Edition) Commission for the Preservation of Natural and Historical Monuments and Relics, Lusaka, Zambia

Fagan B M and Phillipson D W and Daniels S G H, (1969) Iron Age Cultures in Zambia - , Volune II, London, pp 3-54

Fanshawe D B (1972) The Vegetation of Livingstone Forest Research Pamphlets, Lusaka Zambia

Fanshawe D B (1975) The Flora. In: Phillipson D W (Ed).

Foskett (ed.). (1965) The Zambesi Journal and Letters of Dr John Kirk Edinburgh and London

Fox, F. Sir. (1904) River, Road and Rail. John Murray, London.

Fox, Francis, Sir. (1924) Sixty-three years of engineering, scientific and social work. London, J. Murray. Free download.

Frew (1934) Prince George's African Tour Blackie & Sons.

Fuller, B. (1954) Bid Time Return. De Bussy, Holland.


Gale, W D (1973) The Years between - half a century of responsible government in Rhodesia.

Gann L H (1958) Birth of a Plural Society - The Development of Northern Rhodesia under the British South Africa Company 1894-1914.

Gardner M V (1991) Observations on the Victoria Falls Zimbabwe Tourist Board Report, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Gibbons A St H (1897) Explorations and Hunting in Central Africa. Methun, London.

Gibbons A St H (1904) Africa from South to North. Through Marotseland. Lane, London. Free download Part 1, Part 2.

Glyn, R. (1863) A diary of ten months in South Africa. [Quoted by Clay, G in Fagan, B, M. [Editor] (1963)]

Goy, M. K. (1901) Alone in Africa. J Nisbet & Co, London. Free download

Gupta, A (2007) [editor] Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management John Wiley and Sons, England.

Green L G (1956) Legends of the Victoria Falls In: There's a Secret Hid Away 108-114 Howard Timmins, Cape Town.

Green, L. G. (1968) Full Many a Glorious Morning. Timmins.

Gregg, L. (1957) Memories of Olive Schreiner. W & R Chambers, London.

Grogan, E S and Sharp, A H (1900) From the Cape to Cairo London, Hurst and Blackett. Free download.


Hamner, E, D (1983) Steam locomotives of Rhodesia Railways: The story of steam, 1892-1979 Frank Stenvalls Forlag

Harding C (1895) In Remotest Barotseland. Hurst, London. Free download.

Harris, D. (1969) Victoria Falls Souvenir Guide Book.

Hartley R (1993) The Batoka Gorges, Haven for Birds of Prey Africa Wildlife 47:2

Heath R A (1977) Victoria Falls. The Growth of a Rhodesian Village Proceedings of the Geographical Association of Rhodesia 10:15-29

Heath, R. A. (1986) The national survey of outdoor recreation in Zimbabwe. Zambezia XII(1), 26-36.

Hobson, G A (1905) The Victoria Falls Bridge, The African World, Vol 3, 9 December, p107

Hobson, G (1907) The Victoria Falls Bridge. Institution of Civil Engineers, Session 1906-1907, Part IV, Section 1. Minutes of Proceedings 19 March, 1907 (Paper No 3675). Volume 170,January 1907, Pages 1–49. Available online Part 1, Part 2, Part 3.

Hobson, G (1923) The Great Zambesi Bridge - The Story of a Famous Engineering Feat. [In Weinthal, L]

Holub, Emil (1881) Seven Years in South Africa. Travels, Researches and Hunting Adventures, Between the Diamond-Fields and the Zambesi, 1872-79 London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington. Free download Part 1, Part 2.

Holub, E. (1890) Second Voyage to Southern Africa. From Cape Town to the Land of the Mashukulumbwe. Travels in Southern Africa in 1883-87.

Hoole, R. J. (undated) The First Photographs of Victoria Falls taken by Frank ‘Zambezi’ Watson.

Hutchinson, G D (1905) From the Cape to the Zambesi. J Murray, London. Free download.

Hyder Consulting (2007) Footprints on a Global Landscape – 100 years of improving the built environment. Hyder Consulting. Available online.


Indakwa J (1981) King Lewanika and the expansion of British rule in Barotseland 1890-1923 , manuscript in Livingstone Museum


Jalla A D (no date) The History of the Barotse Nation, manuscript in Livingstone Museum

James, D. (1954) The Life of Lord Roberts. Hollis & Carter.

Jeal T (1993) Livingstone Pimlico, London.

Jeal, T. (2007) Stanley: The Impossible Life of Africa’s Greatest Explorer. Yale.


Kararach, G. and Otieno, R. [Editors] (2016) Economic Management in a Hyperinflationary Environment. Oxford University Press.


Le Roux, Servaas (1939) Pioneers and Sportsmen of South Africa 1760-1890 Salisbury, S. Rhodesia, published by the author and printed by The Art Printing Works

Lawley, A. L. (1898) From Bulawayo to the Victoria Falls: A Mission to King Lewanika. Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine, Vol.164 December 1898, p.739-759, William Blackwood & Sons, Edinburgh.

Lewis, J. (2018) Empire of Sentiment - The Death of Livingstone and the Myth of Victoria Imperialism. Cambridge University Press.

Livingstone, David (1857), Missionary travels and researches in South Africa : including a sketch of sixteen years' residence in the interior of Africa, and a journey from the Cape of Good Hope to Loanda, on the west coast, thence across the continent, down the river Zambesi, to the eastern ocean, London. Free download.

Livingstone, David & Livingstone, Charles (1865), Narrative of an expedition to the Zambesi and its tributaries and of the discovery of the lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, 1858-1864 London. Free download.


McAdam (1965) Early Birds in Central Africa, Rhodesiana. Available online

McAdam (1969) Birth of an Airline, Rhodesiana. Available online

McGregor, JoAnn (2003) The Victoria Falls 1900-1940: Landscape, Tourism and the Geographical Imagination, Journal of Southern African Studies, Volume 29, Number 3, September 2003 , pp. 717-737(21). Available online.

McGregor, JoAnn (2009) Crossing the Zambezi : The Politics of Landscape on an African Frontier. Oxford : James Currey & Harare : Weaver Press

Mackintosh C W (1907) Coillard of the Zambesi. Unwin, London. Free download.

Mackintosh C W (1922) The new Zambesi trail ; a record of two journeys to North-Western Rhodesia (1903 and 1920). Unwin, London. Free download.

Macmillan H (2005) An African Trading Empire - The Story of Susman Borthers and Wulfsohn, 1901-2005. I B Tauris & Co Ltd, London.

Makuvaza, S. (2012) Who Owns the Special Area at Victoria Falls World Heritage Site? The Historic Environment, Vol.3 No.1, April, 2012, p42–63

Mallais J G (1918) Life of F C Selous. Longman, London.

Marshall Hole H (1936) Pioneer Days in Southern Rhodesia. Journal of the Royal African Society. Vol 35, No 138. (Jan, 1936), pp37-47. Oxford University Press. Available online.

Martin, D. (1997) Victoria Falls: Mosi-oa-Tunya African Publishing Group, Harare.

Main, M (1990) Zambezi – Journey of a River, Southern Book Publishers, South Africa.

Meadows, K. (2000) Sometimes when it rains: white Africans in black Africa. Thorntree Press.

Metcalfe, C. Sir, and Richarde-Seaver, F. I. (1889) The British Sphere of Influence in South Africa. Fortnightly Review, p.267. London.

Metcalfe, C. (1904) Cape to Cairo Railway. Dawson Daily News, 29 September 1904. Available online.

Metcalfe, Charles, Sir (1916) Railway Development of Africa, Present and Future, The Geographical Journal, Vol. 47, No. 1 (Jan 1916), pp. 3-17. Available online.

Michler I (2007) Victoria Falls and Surrounds. Struik, South Africa.

Mizinga, F.M. (1995) Activities characterising the Lwiindi ceremony of the Leya of Mukuni chieftainancy of Kalomo District.. Livingstone Museum Newsletter, Vol 3, Issue 1, p24-28.

Moffat R (1842) Missionary Labours and Scenes in Southern Africa R Carter, New York. Free download

Mohr, Edward (1876), To the Victoria Falls of the Zambesi, translated by N. D'Anvers. Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivingston, London (Rhodesia Reprint Library, V28)

Moonga. K. (1999) The Development of Tourism in Livingstone District, 1945-1991. University of Zambia.

Moore A E, Larkin P A (2001) Drainage evolution in southcentral Africa since the breakup of Gondwana. S Afr J Geol 104:47–68

Moore A E, Cotterill F P D, Main M P L and Williams H B (2007) The Zambezi River. In: Gupta A (ed) Large rivers: Geomorphology and management. Wiley, New York, pp 311–332

Moore A and Cotterill F (2010) Victoria Falls: Mosi-oa-Tunya - The Smoke that Thunders. In: Migon F (Ed). Geomorphological Landscapes of the World.

Moore, J. (2012) Hotels at War Online source.

Morrah, D. (1947) The Royal Family in Africa. Hutchinson.

Mubitana, K. (1990) The Traditional History and Ethnography. In Phillipson D. W. [Editor] (1990) Mosi-oa-Tunya: a handbook to the Victoria Falls region.

Mukuni, Chief (1957) Handbook of the Leya History, manuscript in Livingstone Museum

Mugwati, M, Nkala, D. and Mashiri, E. (2016) Experiences in the Zimbabwe Hotel Industry during Hyperinflation. [In Kararach, G. and Otieno, R. [Editors] (2016)]

Munokalya, M. (2013) The Mukuni Royal Dynasty’s Short History and the Munokalya Mukuni Royal Establishment’s Ritual and Political Sovereignty.

Muntemba M (1970) Political and ritual soverignty among the Mukuni Leya of Zambia. Zambia Museum Journal, i.

Muskett, H B (1957) Steel Highway - The Story of Rhodesia Railways 1897-1957

Murison, K. [Editor] (2003) Africa South of the Sahara 2003, 32nd Edition. Europa.


Newman, M. (1980s) Victoria Falls : a visitors guide to Victoria Falls. Victoria Falls Publicity Association. [Reprinted 1990s]

Northern News (1962) Victoria Falls Hotel Casino Approved. 13 April 1962.

Nugent C (1990a) The Formation of the Victoria Falls. In: Phillipson D W (Ed), Second Edition.


Oates, Frank (1881) Matabele Land and the Victoria Falls: A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Interior of South Africa. C.G. Oates, editor. London: C. Kegan Paul and Company. Free download.

Oswell, W. E. (1900), William Cotton Oswell: Hunter and Explorer, The Story of His Life William Heinemann, London. Free download Part 1, Part 2.


Pauling, G. (1926) Chronicles of a Contractor

Parsons, D. (1938) Harnessing the Victoria Falls. Discovery.

Pearl, R (1948) Inaugural Flight, Flight Magazine, May 27th. From Flight Magazine online archives: http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive

Pearl, R (1948) Air Cruise, Flight Magazine, June 3rd. From Flight Magazine online archives: http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive

Phillipson, D. W (1975 & 1990) Mosi-oa-Tunya : A Handbook to the Victoria Falls Region Longman, Salisbury/Harare Rhodesia/Zimbabwe

Pinto, S (1881) How I crossed Africa; from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, through unknown countries London. Free download Part 1, Part 2.

Pinhey, E. (1984) A check-list of the Odonata of Zimbabwe and Zambia. Bulawayo, Zimbabwe : National Museums and Monuments of Zimbabwe.

Powell I. A. (1930) Building the highest bridge in the world. Bulawayo Chronicle, Saturday, 8th March 1930.

Price, J. H. (1966) Behind the Headlines. Modern Tramway and Light Railway Review. Vol.29 No.338 p.48-49.

Prince A. T. (1906) Bridging the gorge of the Zambezi. The World’s Work, Volume XII, May, 1906 to October 1906, pages 7637-7647. Doubleday, Page & Company, New York.


Rae, W F (1968) George Westbeech and the Barotseland missionaries 1878-1888 Central Africa Historical Association, Salisbury.

Rangeley, H. (1965) Memoirs Northern Rhodesia Journal, VI, pp 351-363.

Ransford, O N (1968) White Mans Camp, Bulawayo, Rhodesiana, No 18, July 1968.

Ransford O (1978) David Livingstone. The Dark Interior. John Murray, London.

Reynolds, P & Crawford Cousins C (1991) Lwaano Lwanyika Tonga Book of the Earth. Save the Children Fund, England.

Rhodesia Railways (1927) The Victoria Falls. London.

Rhodesia Railways (1929) Information for Visitors to The Victoria Falls. London.

Robert, D. L. (2009) Christian Mission: How Christianity Became a World Religion. Wiley-Blackwell.

Roberts P (2016) Sun, Steel and Spray - A history of the Victoria Falls Bridge. Zambezi Book Company (First published 2011 Victoria Falls Bridge Company). Available to buy online.

Roberts P (2016) Corridors Through Time - A history of the Victoria Falls Hotel. Zambezi Book Company (First published 2015 Jafuta Foundation). Available to buy online.

Roberts P (2017) Footsteps Through Time - A history of Travel and Tourism to the Victoria Falls. Zambezi Book Company. Available to buy online.

Roberts P (2018) Life and Death at the Old Drift, Victoria Falls 1898-1905. Zambezi Book Company. Available to buy online.

Rogerson, C. M. (2009) Tourism Development in Southern Africa: Patterns, Issues and Constraints. In Saarinen et al [Editors] (2009).

Ross, A. C. (2002) David Livingstone: Mission and Empire. Hambledon, London.


Saarinen, J, Becker, F, Manwa, H, Wilson, D. [Editors] (2009) Sustainable Tourism in Southern Africa: Local Communities and Natural Resources in Transition.

Sampson, R (1956) They Came to Northern Rhodesia. Being a record of persons who had entered what is now the Territory of Northern Rhodesia by 31st December, 1902. Lusaka: Northern Rhodesia Government.

Sampson, R (1972) The man with a toothbrush in his hat: The story and times of George Copp Westbeech in Central Africa. Multimedia Publications Lusaka.

Sampson, R (1980) The struggle for British interests in Barotseland, 1871-88. Multimedia Publications, Lusaka.

Sampson, R (2008) White Induna - George Westbeech and the Barotse People. Xlibris.

Scannell T (1960) Aviation in Central Africa. Horizon Magazine, II, 18-22. From 'Our Rhodesia Heritage' website: http://rhodesianheritage.blogspot.co.uk/2013/07/aviation-in-central-africa.html

Schapera I [Editor] (1960) Livingstone's Private Journals 1851-1853. Chatto & Windus, London.

Schreiner, O (1897) Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonaland T. Fisher Unwin, London. Free download.

Schulz, A & Hammar A (1897) The New Africa: a journey up the Chobe and down the Okavango Rivers. Heinman, London. Free download.

Sekwaswa (Ex-head Messenger) and Mahiritona K (no date) History of Livingstone District, manuscript in Livingstone Museum

Selous, Frederick Couteney (1881), A Hunter's Wanderings in Africa. London. (Rhodesia Reprint Library, Vol 14. Books of Rhodesia, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Free download.

Selous, Frederick Couteney (1881) Journeys in the interior of south-central Africa. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 2nd series, vol 3, pp169-175.

Selous, Frederick Couteney (1896) Sunshine and storm in Rhodesia; being a narrative of events in Matabeleland both before and during the recent native insurrection up to the date of the disbandment of the Bulawayo field force. London: R Ward. Free download.

Selous, Frederick Couteney (1889) Letters - Journey to the Kafue River and the upper Zambesi. Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 2nd series, vol 7, pp216-223.

Selous, Frederick Couteney (1893) Travel and Adventure in South-East Africa Being the Narrative of the Last Eleven Years Spent by the Author on the Zambesi and its Tributaries, with an Account of the Colonisation of Mashunaland and the Progress of the Gold Industry in that Country. London: Rowland Ward and Co. Free download.

Shepherd, G. (2008) Old Livingstone and Victoria Falls, Stenlake Publishing.

Shepherd, G. (2013) Old Frontier Life in North-Western Rhodesia. Stenlake Publishing.

Sokwanele (2005) Clearing away the Trash. Online source.

Southern Rhodesia Department of Publicity (1938). The Victoria Falls of Rhodesia. Public Relations Department of Southern Rhodesia.

Southern Rhodesia Public Relations Department (c1955) Victoria Falls, Greatest River Wonder of the World. Public Relations Department of Southern Rhodesia.

Smith E W and Dale A M (1920) The Ila-speaking Peoples of Northern Rhodesia, 2 vols, London

Stanley, H. M. (1898) Through South Africa - His Visit to Rhodesia, the Transvaal, Cape Colony, Natal.

Strage, Mark (1973?) Cape to Cairo, Jonathan Cape

Stead, W. T. (1902) The Last Will and Testament of Cecil J Rhodes.

Stirling, W. G. M. and House, J. A. (2014) They Served Africa with Wings. E-book Edition (First published 2002).

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Sykes, Frank (1905) Official Guide to the Victoria Falls

Swart D (1978) The Victoria Falls Bridge South African Philantelist 54:127-131


Tabler, E. C. (1955) The Far Interior A. A. Balkema, Cape Town

Tabler, E. C. [Editor] (1960) Zambezia and Matabeleland in the Seventies - The Narrative of Frederick Hugh Barber (1875 and 1877-8) and the Journal of Richard Frewen (1877-8). Chatto & Windus, London

Tabler, E. C. [Editor] (1963) Trade and Travel in Early Barotseland. The Diaries of George Westbeech 1885-1888 and Captain Norman MacLeod 1875-1876. London: Chatto and Windus

Tabler, E. C. (1966) Pioneers of Rhodesia. Cape Town: C. Struik

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Tabor, George (2002) The Cape to Cairo Railway and River Routes, Genta Publications

Tanser, G H (1950) Founders of Rhodesia

Teede, J & Teede, F (1991) The Zambezi: River of the Gods

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Thompson J M (1934) Memorandum on the Native Tribes and Tribal Areas of Northern Rhodesia, Livingstone.

Trayner, W. (1964) The Livingstone Pioneer Northern Rhodesia Journal, V, pp 361-366


UNESCO (1989) Mosi-oa-Tunya/Victoria Falls summary.

UNESCO (2007) State of Conservation summary report.

USAID (2013) Positioning The Zimbabwe Tourism Sector For Growth: Issues and Challenges. USAID Strategic Economic Research & Analysis – Zimbabwe.


Van der Reit (1971) Environmental Impact Assessment on Victoria Falls Rain Forest National Parks Report, Harare, Zimbabwe.

van Riel , F. (2008) Walking with my uncles. Africa Geographic Magazine. Vol.16 No.5, July 2008.

Varian, H F (1953) Notes on a Survey of the Victoria Falls in 1905-6 The Geographical Journal, Vol 84, No 1, p65-72. Available online.

Varian, H F (1953) Some African Milestones Wheatley : George Ronald. (Reprinted 1973 Books of Rhodesia). Free download.

Victoria Falls World Heritage Site (2007) Joint Management Plan. Victoria Falls/Mosi-oa-Tunya World Heritage Site, 2007-2012.

Victoria Falls World Heritage Site Joint Report (2014) Joint State of Conservation Report. Victoria Falls/Mosi-oa-Tunya World Heritage Site.

Vogel J (1971) Kamangoza Nairobi, Kenya, for the National Museums of Zambia, Paper No 2

Vogel J (1971) Kumadzulo Lusaka, Zambia, for the National Museums of Zambia, Paper No 3

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Vogel J (1974) Simbusenga Lusaka, Zambia, for the National Museums of Zambia, Paper No 4

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Wallis, A. H (1910) A Section along the Railway from Cape Town to the Victoria Falls, The Geographical Journal Vol. 36, No. 3 (Sep., 1910), pp. 339-343. Available online.

Wallis J P R (1946) Thomas Baines of King’s Lynn: Explorer and Artist. 1820-1875. Cape, London.

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Wallis J P R [Editor](1956) The Zambezi Expedition of David Livingstone 1858-1863 Chatto & Windus, London.

Ward Price, G. (1926) Through South Africa with the Prince

Watt, A. (undated) History of Livingstone (unpublished document held by Livingstone Museum, c1960s).

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Wills W A and Colinbridge (1971) The Downfall of Lobengula, Books of Rhodesia.

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World Conservation Union (1996) Strategic Environmental Assessment of Developments Around Victoria Falls. Regional Office for Southern Africa.

Worthington, F (1902) Note on the Mampukushu, manuscript in Livingstone Museum

Worthington, F. V. (1922) The Witch Doctor and Other Rhodesian Studies. The Field Press, London

Wright, T. (2001) History of the North Rhodesian Police. BECM Press.

Wynn, S. (1995) The Victoria Falls : A Fragile Power. Africa Geographic Magazine, Vol.3, No.1, January 1995.


Zambezi Society (1994) Batoka Gorge: Short-sighted Destruction or Necessary Evil? Paper sent to the Zimbabwe River Authority in response to the Batoka Gorge preliminary impact assessment report.

Life and Death at the Old Drift, Victoria Falls 1898-1905

Discover Victoria Falls - Click to visit site

'To The Victoria Falls' aims to bring you the wonder of the Victoria Falls through a look at its natural and human history.

This website has been developed using information researched from a wide variety of sources, including books, magazines and websites etc too numerous to mention or credit individually, although many key references are identified on our References page. Many of the images contained in this website have been sourced from old photographic postcards and publications and no infringement of copyright is intended. We warmly welcome any donations of photographs or information to this website.

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