The Snakes of the Victoria Falls
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BLIND SNAKES (FAMILY TYPHLOPIDAE)
Worm-like, primitive fosseral (underground) burrowing snakes with toothless lower jaw, vestigial eye, internal vestiges of pelvic girdle.
SCHLEGAL'S (BEAKED) BLIND SNAKE
Rhinotyphlops schlegelii (sub species mucruso)
Moderate sized, robust bodied snake (up to 60 cm). Blue-grey to black, with pale centred scales. Pale below. Covered with close-fitting, highly polished scales, head protected by large shield and mouth set back from the snout like a shark. Tail stump ends in sharp spike. Adapted for burrowing, no noticeable neck or defined head, feeds mainly on termites. Commonly found under stones and come to the surface after heavy rains. Stubby tail with sharp tip. Ovipatous, laying 15-50 eggs. [Possibly sub species petersii in Falls region?]
DELANDE’S BLIND SNAKE Typhoslops lalandei
THREAD SNAKES (FAMILY LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE)
Very slender, worm-like primitive burrowing snakes, toothless upper jaw.
PETER'S THREAD (/WORM) SNAKE - Leptotyphlops scutifrons
Tiny (20cm), slender snake, black - resembling pencil lead. Head bluntly rounded with shield, no noticeable neck. Covered with close-fitting highly polished scales. Tail longer than blind snake, terminating abruptly with sharp spike. Feeds on termites. Oviparous, laying 2 eggs.
LONGTAILED THREAD (/WORM) SNAKE - Leptolyplops longicauda
Small slender snake, pale grey or red brown [HNP?]
BOAS & PYTHONS (FAMILY BOIDAE)
Large, ancient family, some of largest snakes. Minute limb bones and pelvic girdle vestiges. Unique sensory pits on lip scales detect infra-red radiation, enabling warm blooded hunting in dark (or even if blind).
PYTHONS (SUB FAMILY PYTHONINAE)
SOUTHERN AFRICAN PYTHON - Python natalensis
Largest African snake (average 3.5 - 4.5m, up to 7m), robust bodies, spear-shaped head. Dark brown arrow-marking on head. Body largely dark brown with lighter grey-brown blotches, flanks grey-brown with dark blotches. Scales small and smooth. Eye elliptical. Feeds on rats and small antelope. Prey ambushed and constricted, usually at dusk or dawn. Equally at home in water. Oviparous, laying 30-50 eggs, female coils to incubate. Only snakes protected by law in Zimbabwe. Wilson (1975) records a 10 ft specimen captured at the Lukosi River in 1970.
BURROWING SNAKES (FAMILY ATRACTASPIDIDAE)
Burrowing, with wide range of fang types and associated glands. Usually back fanged.
BURROWING ASPS (SUB FAMILY ATRACTASPININAE)
SOUTHERN (BIBRON'S) BURROWING (STILETTO) ASP - Atractaspis bibronii
Small slender snake, head small and flat, not distinct from neck, tail short and sharp-tipped. Uniform purple-brown to black, underside brown/black or pale white. May emerge at surface at night/after rains. Feed on small rodents and reptiles, especially blind snakes and centipede-eaters. Oviparous, laying up to 6 eggs. Cannot be held safely by the neck - fangs long - bite with sideways 'stab' – hence name ‘stiletto’ snakes. Bites cause intense pain and local swelling. Polyvalent antivenom ineffective.
OTHERS (SUB FAMILY APARALLACTINAE)
Slender bodied and smooth scaled, with small head and no noticeable neck, very small eyes. Found burrowing in loose soil litter, old termitaria, under rocks/rotten logs – feed on centipedes. Slightly poisonous but harmless to man.
RETICULATED CENTIPEDE EATER - Aparallactus lunulatus
Small (average 30-40cm, up to 50cm), slender snakes, smooth scaled with small, flat, rounded head. Tail fairly long. Body uniform grey to olive/plumb or light/dark brown, with black nuchal (?) collar. Scales dark edged. Underside greenish white. Oviparous, laying 3-4 eggs.
BLACK HEADED (/CAPE) CENTIPEDE EATER - Aparallactus capensis
Small (av 25-30cm, up to 40cm), slender, smooth scaled with small head and rounded snout. Body uniform yellowish, pinkish/red or grey-brown with dark line along middle of back. Head with black collar. Underside pale greenish white. Common under logs, active at night and after rains. Oviparous, laying 2-3 eggs.
PURPLE GLOSSED SNAKES
Smooth, ‘polished’ glossy-scaled burrowing snakes, small bullet-shaped head, no neck, short blunt tail. Small eyes, round pupil. Seldom above ground - found in loose soil, feeds on other burrowing reptiles (blind snakes). Docile.
COMMON PURPLE GLOSSED SNAKE - Amblyodipsus polylepis
Moderate sized (av 60-75cm, up to 100cm), robust bodied, head flattened, rounded tail. Body uniform slaty/glossy black with purplish sheen above and below. Oviparous.
KALAHARI (/SPOTTED) PURPLE GLOSSED (BLACK AND YELLOW BURROWING) SNAKE - Amblyodipsus ventrimaculat
Smaller (up to 45cm), slender snake. Yellow above with wide dark stripe down middle of back, scales pale edged. dark lead grey to purple-brown. Underparts pale yellow. Oviparous, laying up to 3 eggs.
Small elongate head, indistinct from neck, with hooked snout. Smooth scaled. Small eye, round pupil. Feed on amphisbaenians. Harmless burrower. 75-90cm
ELONGATE (WESTERM/MECHOW'S) QUILL SNOUTED SNAKE - Xenocalamus mechowii
Moderate sized ( ), very slender, smooth scaled. Long pointed head, short tail. Lemon yellow with dorsal row of brown markings. Oviparous, laying 4 eggs. Kalahari savannah. Various colour-phases/sub species ??
TYPICAL SNAKES (FAMILY COLUBRIDAE)
Most successful and most common snakes. No functioning left lung or pelvic vestiges. Majority fangless and harmless. Constrictors. Vertical pupil.
OLD WORLD SNAKES (Sub family LAMPROPHIINAE)
HOUSE SNAKES (Genus LAMPROPHIS)
COMMON (/BROWN) HOUSE SNAKE - Lamprophis capensis (fuliginosus)
Moderate sized (up to 120cm), smooth scaled, robust bodied, with spear-shaped head, distinct neck, shortish tail. Body yellow-brown to pinkish/red-brown above, with pale ‘V’ extending from snout through small eyes. ‘Mother of pearl’ creamy white below. Common, nocturnal, mostly terrestrial and harmless. Feeds mainly on rodents (especially rats), frequently associated with human habitations. Oviparous, laying 6-16 eggs.
WOLF SNAKES (Genus LYCOPHIDION)
CAPE WOLF SNAKE - Lycophidion capense
Small (seldom exceeds 60cm), moderate build, flat head with square snout and short tail. Smooth-scaled, body dark brown/black, scales tipped white. White belly. Long recurved front upper teeth – catches smooth-scaled skinks and other lizards. No venom, harmless, slow moving, nocturnal. Oviparous, laying 3-9 eggs.
FILE SNAKES (Genus MECHELYA)
Triangular body cross section, broad flat head distinct from neck, scales heavily keeled – contiguous (not overlapping). Large nostrils, smallish eyes, round pupils. Nocturnal and terrestrial, very secretive. Powerful onstrictors - small rodents, other lizards/snakes. Harmless.
SOUTHERN (CAPE) FILE SNAKE - Mehelya capeosis
Large (up to 150 to 175cm max), robust bodiesd – triangular in cross-section – with very flat head. Body greyish/purplish brown, underside dirty ivory white. Pale vertebral streak runs nape to tail. Exposed interstigial skin pinkish/mauve. Oviparous, laying 5-8 eggs. Uncommon. Recorded in Falls rainforest.
BLACK (/NYASSA) FILE SNAKE - Mehelua nyassae
Small (up to 50cm, rarely exceeding 175cm), but longer tailed. Uniform slate/dark brown/blackish above, brown below. Interstigial skin pink. No pale vertebral streak. Rare.
MOLE SNAKE (Genus PSEUDASPIS)
MOLE SNAKE - Pseudaspis cana
Large (average 180cm, up to 200cm), robust, thick bodies, with small pointed head, indistinct from neck, moderately long tail, scales shiny and smooth, slightly convex. Varied colouration from light grey with scales often tipped with black, to yellow-brown, brick red or dark brown/black.. Small eyes, round pupils. Only species in genus. Powerful but harmless constrictor, live underground in burrows feeding on small rodents (rats) and moles. Swallows eggs whole. Aggressive when caught - bites but no venom. Viviparous, giving birth to about 20 young.
OLD WORLD WATER SNAKES (Sub Family NATRICINAE)
Gentile, inoffensive, nocturnal. Feed mostly on frogs and fish. Harmless
MARSH SNAKES (Genus NATICITERES)
OLIVE MARSH SNAKE - Natriciteres olivacea
Small (av 45-60cm), smooth scaled, moderate build, with small rounded head hardly distinct from neck. Body olive/slate grey to blackish above with darker dorsal band. Underside bright yellow. Large eye, round pupil. Diurnal and terrestrial in damp situations to semi-aquatic. Feeds on frogs, tadpoles and small fishes. Moderately long tail, shed when disturbed, does not re-grow. Oviparous, laying 3-8 eggs.
SWAMP SNAKES (Genus LIMNOPHIS)
Small, inconspicuous, small head ,no neck, largish eyes, round pupils.
EASTERN STRIPED (BANGWEOLICUS) SWAMP (PISEIVOROUS WATER) SNAKE - Limnophis bangweolicous
Robust version of Olive Marsh Snake, olive brown above, with a pair of yellow or red-brown dorso-lateral lines. Belly brick red or yellow. Aquatic, feeds on fish. Only Zimbabwe record from Vic Falls in 1974 (Broadly).
BICOLOURED SWAMP SNAKE – Limnophis bicolour
Recorded from Kasane and Livingstone (Fritz)
SHOVEL SNOUT SNAKES (Genus PROSYMNA)
Not obviously related to others in family, snout depressed, forming 'shovel'. Burrow in soil, feed on reptile eggs..
ANGOLAN SHOVELSNOUT - Prosymna angolensis
SUNDEVALL’S (LINED/STRIPED) SHOVEL SNOUT – Prosymma sundevallii (sub species lineate)
Small but robust snake (av 30, up to 40cm), smooth scaled with flat head, indistinct neck. Pale to ark brown/blackish above, white below. Snout strongly depressed or flattened, projecting, with acute angular edge (pre-frontal shield). Small eye. Fosseral. Feeds on lizard eggs and young. Oviparous, laying up to 5 eggs. Secretive. Recorded from HNP.
SAND SNAKES & RELATIVES (Sub Family PSAMMOPHINAE)
Mostly diurnal, fast, active, terrestrial. Some arboreal, some burrow in loose sand. Large back fangs (usually grooved, poison fang set well back on either side of upper jaw, usually below/behind the eye), few toxic.
BARK SNAKES (Genus HEMIRHAGERRHIS)
MOPANE (/BARK or EASTERN SPOT-STRIPED) SNAKE – Hemirhagerrhis nototaenia
Small (30-40cm), arboreal, slender, flattened head, obvious neck, small eyes, vertical pupils..
Body ash grey to greyish brown. Top of head black, sides of head tinged pink with series of markings forming dark vertebral band continuing into stripe and rows of black markings along body. Underside dirty white, mottled with grey. Docile, slow moving, feeds on small tree lizards and geckos. Oviparous, laying 4-8 eggs.
BEAKED SNAKES (Genus RHAMPHIOPHIS)
RUFOUS BEAKED SNAKE – Rhamphiophis oxyrhychis
Large (1.5m max), stout built snakes, with short head and hooked snout. Light pinkish/red-brown above, scales dark edged. Head and neck grey-brown. Underside white. Eyes largish, with dark horizontal stripe, pupils round. Smooth scaled. Fast moving, diurnal, terrestrial hunter, feeding on rodents and small lizards. Secretive. Oviparous, laying 8-17 eggs.
OLYMPIC SNAKES (Genus DROMOPHIS)
LINED OLYMPIC (/GRASS or STRIPED SWAMP) SNAKE – Dromophis lineatus
Moderate sized (90-105cm), slender bodied with distinct head, medium sized eyes, round pupil. Body olive with well defined greenish-yellow longitudinal stripes on back. Caprivi region – one Zimbabwe record from Nampini in Vic Falls region (Broadley).
SKAAPSTEKERS (Genus PSAMMOPHYLAX)
Solid bodied, distinct head, medium eyes, round pupils, terrestrial, grassland, active day and eve, feed small vertebrates - bite and subdue with venom (very toxic but minute yields).
(THREE) STRIPED (GRASS SNAKE or) SKAAPSTEKER - Psammoplulax tritaeniatus
Moderate sized (av 75cm, up to 90), slender, smooth scaled, with pointed head. Light greyish brown with three well defined black-edged dark brown longitudinal stripes, sandwiched with thin pale pinkish/yellow-orange, running length of body and tail. Underside pale white/cream/yellow. Oviparous, laying 5-18 eggs. Diurnal, feeding mainly on rodents.
SAND & GRASS SNAKES (Genus PSAMMOPHIS)
Distinct head, large eye, round pupil. Fast active, diurnal, inhabit savanna or arid scrub. Tail breaks and partly re-grows.
(SOUTHERN) STRIPE BELLIED SAND (/GRASS) SNAKE – Psammophis subtaeniatus
Moderate sized (av 90-105cm, up to 120), very slender snake, with elongate head and long tail. Smooth scaled. Body grey-olive brown, with broad brown band down middle of back, separated by black edged cream/yellow stripes. Underside creamy white with black sub-dorso-lateral stripe. Most frequently encountered diurnal snake, frequenting dry open sand/grass bush and feeding on terrestrial lizards. Slender, swift and fast moving, when flushed hides in nearest bush/scrub Oviparous, laying 4-10 eggs.
DWARF SAND SNAKE – Psammophis angolensis
OLIVE GRASS SNAKE – Psammophis phillipsii
Moderate to large (150cm up to 200cm), slender build with elongate head and long whip-like tail. Smooth scaled. Body uniform olive/grey-brown with pale vertebral line. Head brown with yellow and black markings. Very common diurnal snake found in reedbeds and long grass. Venomous but harmless, causing only local swelling (antivenom ineffective). Oviparous, laying 10-20 eggs.
COLUBRINE SNAKES (Sub Family COLUBRINAE)
AFRICAN SMOOTH SNAKES (Genus MEIZODON)
(SOUTHERN) SEMIORNATE (/BUSH) SNAKE - Meizodon semiornatus
Small (up to 70cm), slender, smooth scaled. Body grey to olive-brown with irregular dark cross-stripes on anterior half, fading with age. Underside dark grey. Flat head, hardly distinct from neck. Round pupils. Shy, diurnal, harmless, frequenting thick wooded vegetation, feeding on frogs and lizards. Oviparous, laying 2-3 eggs.
GREEN & BUSH SNAKES (Genus PHILOTHAMNUS)
Agile, diurnal, slender bodied, obvious head, large eyes, round pupils. Harmless, lack fangs and venom glands.
SPOTTED (VARIGATED) BUSH SNAKE - Philothanmnus semivariegatus
Medium sized (Up to 100cm), very slender snake, with flat head distinct from body and long slender tail. Body olive-green above, often marked, to blue/green and bronze towards tail. Head blue-green, throat white or yellow. Dorsal scales smooth, ventral scales distinctively notched and keeled. Swift-moving, diurnal, agile tree hunter,, feeding mainly on tree lizards and geckos. Common in dry savannah, especially mopane woodland/bush. Oviparous, laying 6-12 eggs.
ANGOLAN (WESTERN) GREEN SNAKE - Philothamnus angolensis
GREEN (/EASTERN) WATER SNAKE - Philothamnus hoplogaster
Common diurnal snake, frequenting reedbeds and bushes along Zambezi. Av 75cm. Bright emerald green above, underparts pale bluish white to yellowish green. Interstitial skin black. Eye has golden iris. Often mistaken for green mamba/boomslang. terrestrial, low vegetation. Damp areas, feed small vertebrates (esp frogs).
EGG EATERS (Genus DASYPELTIS)
Adapted for exclusive egg eating (rudimentary teeth, elasticated skin on neck & lower jaw, pharyngeal ‘teeth’ – hard-tipped processes of the neck vertebrae which extend downwards into the gullet and break shells of eggs). Head small, medium eyes, vertical pupils, body scales strongly keeled. Mimic venomous snakes - 'hiss' by coiling and rubbing serrated lateral scales. Strike readily but harmless. Nocturnal, mainly terrestrial.
COMMON (/AFRICAN or RHOMBIC) EGGEATER - Dasypeltis scabra
Small to medium sized (av 60, up to 90cm), slender but solid-bodied, with small blunt/rounded head, not distinct from neck. Body light brown to greyish-brown with vertebral series of dark brown markings and vertical bars. Forward pointing ‘V' on neck, repeated. Dorsal scales strongly keeled. Nocturnal. Very common, though rarely seen. Crushes eggs in throat, swallowing contents and ejecting shell. Oviparous, laying 6-18 eggs.
HERALD SNAKES (Genus CROTAPHOPELTIS)
Nocturnal, terrestrial, short and broad-flattened head, round snout (giving Adder-like appearance) big eyes, vertical pupils, prefers damp marshy areas, feed on frogs.
HEARALD (BLACK-TEMPLED CAT) SNAKE – Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia
Small (av 75cm up to100cm), moderate build, with broad head and short tail. Body greyish to olive-brown/blackish, sometimes ‘speckled’ with white. Conspicuous blue to purple black iridescent patches on temples. Usually a V shaped black marking on nape and crown (? Iridescent patches??). Upper lip white or dark brown, sometimes orange/red (?). Scales dull, keeled towards tail. Common, feeds on amphibians. Bite harmless but painful. Oviparous, laying 5-12 eggs.
TIGER SNAKES (Genus TELESCOPUS)
Nocturnal, slender 'cat' snakes. Head comparatively large, flattened, broader than neck. Large eye, vertical pupil. Dry, rocky or open savannah. Slow moving and unpredictable. Strike readily, mild venom.
EASTERN TIGER SNAKE – Telescopus semianulatus
Small to moderate sized (av 75cm, up to 105cm), slender build, with broad head and long tail. Bright orange-pinkish buff to yellowish or reddish brown or dull salmon above with large dark brown/black blotches forming banded markings. Smooth scaled. Semi-arboreal, feeding from dusk on geckoes and chameleons. Oviparous, laying up to 20 eggs.
TWIG SNAKES (Genus THELOTORNIS)
Arboreal, elongate, lance shaped head with narrow and pointed snout. Large eyes, horizontal 'key-hole' pupil. Long tailed, back fangs, cryptic colouration - ambush hunter.
VINE (TWIG/SAVANNA) SNAKE - Thelotornis capensis (sub specius oatesii)
Moderate sized ( ), very slender snake with lance shaped head and long tapering tail. Top of head green, body ash grey to grey-brown, with diagonal bands of whitish blotches and flecks of black, pink and orange. Head with ‘Y’-shaped dark markings. Scales slightly keeled, narrow, elongate. Cryptically coloured ambush hunter, lying with up to a third of body extended, unsupported and motionless. Pupil key-hole shaped, good binocular vision. Feeds tree lizards, chameleons and geckos. Prey is slowly stalked and suddenly grabbed, chewing to inject venom before swallowing head-first. Inflates throat like boomslang when threatened. Venom highly toxic – haemotoxic (24-48 hour latent period, not neutralized by boomslang anti-venom - treatment relies on blood/plasma transfusion). Common. Oviparous, laying up to 13 eggs.
BOOMSLANG - Dispholidus typus
Moderate snake (av 150cm), slender build with large head and long tail. Highly varied colouration, males usually green, females uniform olive brown/grey, paler below. Juveniles grey-brown or black, scattered with black scale edgings. Large eyes, with round or horizontally pear-shaped pupil. Strongly keeled, narrow dorsal scales. Common, largely confined to open savannah/bush. Strongly arboreal. Shy, but when cornered will enlarge throat and strike vigorously. Only back-fanged snake dangerous to man. Venom cause defibrination of blood, haemoraging and death. Needs specific antivenom. Feeds on chameleons, tree lizards small birds (especially robbing nests), mammals and frogs. Often located by mobbing birds. Oviparous, laying 5-20 eggs.
COBRAS, MAMBAS & RELATIVES (Fam ELAPIDAE)
Medium - large, well developed fixed front fangs and venom glands. mostly terrestrial. family includes many of most poisonous snakes – venom neurotoxic, causing paralysis and death.
GARTER SNAKES (Genus ELAPSOIDEA)
Small-medium sized, small bullet-shaped head, short tail, burrowing, oviporous. Surface at night.
(ANGOLAN) HALF-BANDED GARTER SNAKE – Elapsoidea semiannulata
Small (av 50cm, up to 70cm), slender but heavily built with short tail. Pale cross-bands fade with age. Juvenile black with white/pale yellow bands, darkening with age from centre and reducing to form pairs of narrow rings, disappearing completely with age. Large dorsal scales. Round pupil. Feeds on small reptiles, especially small snakes. Secretive, docile but mildly venomous. Oviparous, laying 4-8 eggs.
ZAMBEZI (BOULENGERS) GARTER SNAKE - Elapsoidea boulengeri
- slow moving reptile feeder - venomous (mild).
COBRAS (Genus NAJA)
Large, stocky, smooth scaled. Alert, active night foragers - small vertebrates. When threatened extends ‘hood’ – extensions to neck. Some have modified hollow 'spitting' fangs.
SNOUTED (EGYPTIAN) COBRA - Naja haji
Large (av 180cm, up to 3m), powerful robust snake with a large broad head, moderately depressed with short pointed snout. Juveniles yellowish with black neck rings, body colour darkening with age to greyish, olive to dark brown, underparts dull yellow/brown. 1 in 4 individuals develop in dark bands, leaving paler rings (ssp annulifera). Scales smooth, dull. Round pupil. Nocturnal hunter feeds on toads, other snakes and rodents. Often live in terminalia, basking nearby. When disturbed rears up, spreading broad hood. Non-spitter but venomous bite - burning pain and swelling followed rapidly by neurological symptoms and respiratory failure (yield is 175-300mg - 25-35mg fatal). Requires antivenom in large doses. Oviparous, laying 20-25 eggs.
MOCAMBIQUE SPITTING COBRA - Naja mossambica
Moderately sized (av 100cm, rarely exceeds 150cm), with small blunt head and narrow hood. Body light slate grey/olive-tawny brown. Salmon pink or yellowish below. Smooth satiny acales black edged. Pupil round. Nocturnal hunter, feeding on toads and often found near water. One of most dangerous snakes, rears up when threatened, spits readily in defence, range 2-3m (200-400mg yield, 40-50mg fatal). Sprayed at eyes causing agonising and instant pain and causing skin necrosis requiring grafts. Neurotoxic effect minor, fatalities rare. Oviparous, laying 10-20 eggs.
MAMBAS (Genus DENDROASPIS)
BLACK MAMBA - Dendroaspis polyepis
Large, long and agile, Africa’s largest venomous snake, average 2.5-3m, sometimes over 425cm. Slender-bodied, elongate with long tail. Uniform dark olive-brown/grey to black, underparts pale pink to yellowish. Smooth satiny scales, interstitial skin black. Diurnal. Flattened 'coffin-shaped' head (flat sided), large eye, round pupil. Feeds mainly on small mammals. Open bush. Active hunters, toxic venom. Long lived, territorial - defends by rearing up, spreading narrow hood, gaping mouth (showing black), biting readily and often. Hisses. Venom neurotoxic and cardiotoxic (yield 100-400, 10-15 fatal), requiring large volume of antivenom - death from respiratory failure 7-15 hours. Oviparous, laying about 12 eggs.
ADDERS AND VIPERS (Family VIPERIDAE)
SNOUTED NIGHT ADDER - Causus defilippii
Small (30cm, rarely over 40cm), heavily built, sluggish snake, short stubby bodied with short, triangular head and very short tail. Body brown, pink or mauve, with broad brown band down middle of back, conspicuous forward pointing ‘V’ on top of head, and series of black triangular dorsal blotches and dark barring on flanks. Head wide at back, flat with upturned snout. Scales slightly keeled. Round pupil. Feeds on toads. Bite causes only localised pain. Oviparous, laying 5-7 eggs.
PUFFADDER - Bitis arietans
Moderate sized (av 90cm, up to 120cm), obese, heavily built and sluggish snake, with broad ‘subtriangular’ flat head and snout, short tail. Body straw yellow – light orange-brown with chevron like markings formed from dark, pale edges, scales. Scales strongly keeled, belly smooth. Ambushes prey (rodents, especially rats), biting and then releasing prey, following scent trail to locate dead victim. Doesn’t move out of way of humans – gives warning ‘hiss’, walkers often bitten on ankle – rarely fatal, but often caused local tissue damage. Oviparous, 25-35 eggs incubated inside the female, deposited with thin membrane which quickly ruptures.
FIELD GUIDE TO THE SNAKES OF SOUTHERN AFRICA – V F Fritz Simmons, Collins, 1979 (reprint 1983)
SNAKES OF RHODESIA – D G Broadley & E V Cook, Longman Bundu Series, 1975